WITH THE VILLAGES OF BOREHAM, BROOMFIELD, SPRINGFIELD, GREAT AND LITTLE WALTHAM, WIDFORD AND NEIGHBOURHOODS
Pigot's Essex 1832-3 Trade Directory
CHELMSFORD, the county town of Essex, is one of high respectability; and its neighbourhood abounds with wealthy and genteel families. It is 29 miles from the Metropolis, 22 from Colchester, and 10 from Maldon; situated in a beautiful valley, between the Chelmer and the Can, to which rivers the gardens on each side of the town extend. The country surrounding Chelmsford is pleasant and fertile; the soil consists principally of a deep rich loam, intermixed with veins of gravel. Maurice, Bishop of London, first made Chelmsford a place of importance, in 1100, by building a bridge of three arches over the river Can; the present is an elegant stone bridge, of one arch, erected several years since in its stead. The government of the town is confided to two resident magistrates, and several constables. Lady Mildmay is the owner of the manor, who holds courts baron and leet annually. The assizes for the county take place in Lent, July and December - the latter for the delivery of the gaol only: there is also a county court for the recovery of debts under 40s.; and petty sessions held weekly on Tuesdays and Fridays, besides others held quarterly, for petty offences. The legal town's business, as well as that of the election of representatives in parliament, take place in the town hall, which is a neat building of white stone, with a rusticated basement, and ornamented with handsome columns supporting a pediment; assembly rooms, and other convenient offices, are also within the walls of this building. Contiguous to it is a neatly sculptured conduit, supplied by a spring about a quarter of a mile distant, which yields to the town excellent water. A penitentiary is near this town; it is a well constructed edifice and is intended for the reception of prisoners, and to supersede the use of the old gaol. This is not a manufacturing town; but its local trade is well supported by its own inhabitants, and those of the surrounding district. Chelmsford, for its size, may be considered rich in the vehicles for the diffusion of knowledge, there being three well-edited newspapers issued from the press weekly; there is also a philosophical society, of which Dr. Venables is the respected president.
The church is an ancient Gothic structure, dedicated to St. Mary. About twenty-five years since, the body or roof fell in, owing to the ignorance of the workmen, who were digging a vault too near the main pillars; since which it has been repaired and modernized, and additional galleries erected. The parish is a rectory, including Chelmsford and its hamlet Moulsham, held by the Rev Carew Anthony St. John Mildmay, son of Lady Mildmay, the patroness of the living; the Rev. H.L. Majendie is the present curate. The other places of worship are two chapels for independents, one each for baptists, and Wesleyan methodists, and a new large meeting-house for the society of friends. Here is a 'royal free grammar school,' founded by Edward VI., and endowed with land situate in the county; and some almshouses, founded by the Mildmay family. The market day is Friday, which, besides being well supplied with other general articles for consumption, is a large one for corn. Fairs, May 12th and November 12th, for cattle. - By the late government census, the population of Chelmsford, with MOULSHAM hamlet, appears to be as follows: in 1801, 3,775 --in 1811, 4,649 - in 1821, 4,994 - and in 1831, 5,435 inhabitants; being an increase, in 30 years, of 1,660 persons.
BOREHAM is a village and parish, in the same hundred as Chelmsford, three miles from that town; and is situated in a much admired part of the county. The church is an ancient edifice, and contains, as well as in its cemetery, some curious monuments; those in the Sussex chancel especially, to the Radclyffes, Earls of Essex, and, in the church-yard, to Lord and Lady Waltham, are deserving attention. The population of the parish is about 1,000 persons.
BROOMFIELD is a small village and parish, about two miles north of Chelmsford, in the same hundred, with a population of 747 persons.
SPRINGFIELD is a village in a parish of that name, divided from Chelmsford only by the river Chelmer. The church is a neat ancient building, with a tower which appears to have been raised in 1586. This village has rather increased in importance lately; a new county gaol having been erected, and a basin and wharfs on the Chelmer navigation constructed. The population, by the late census, amounted to 1,851 souls.
WIDFORD is an inconsiderable village, and small parish, about a mile and a half from Chelmsford, on the Ingatestone road. It contains the parish church, and abut 150 inhabitants.
GREAT AND LITTLE WALTHAM are two villages and parishes; the former about five, and the latter four miles from Chelmsford; both in the same hundred as that town. At Great Waltham, the hemp, sacking and rope manufactures, and the malting trade, are carried on, the latter to some extent. In this village is the parish church, and an endowed chapel. Great Waltham contained, by the government returns for 1831, 2,013 inhabitants, and Little Waltham at the same period 674.
POST OFFICE, High-street, CHELMSFORD, George Howard, Post Master. - Letters from LONDON arrive every night at half-past eleven, and are despatched every morning at half-past three. - Letters from NORWICH, &c. arrive every morning at half-past three, and are despatched every night at half-past eleven. - A cross-post every morning at half-past five to MALDON, leaving bags at BADDOW and DANBURY, and returning at ten at night. Cross-post to DUNMOW every morning at half-past five, leaving bags at FELSTED, and returning at nine at night. - Office opens for the delivery of letters every morning at eight, and closes, every evening at nine; but letters are received until ten, by paying one penny with each.
To LONDON, the Royal Mail (from Norwich) and the Telegraph (from Yarmouth), every morning at three; the Herald (from Scole Inn & Diss), every afternoon at half-past three; the Defiance (from Colchester), every afternoon at four; the Shannon, every afternoon at three; the Coggeshall (from Coggeshall), every Monday morning at eight, and other mornings (Sunday excepted) at nine; & the Phenomenon (from Norwich), every alternate afternoon at five, all call at the Black Boy; go through Ingatestone, Brentwood and Romford.
To LONDON, the Norwich Day (from Norwich), every aftern. at five; the Bury (from Bury), every afternoon (Sunday excepted) at half-past two; the Wellington, every morning at half-past eleven; the Harwich (from Harwich), every morning (Sunday excepted) at twelve; the Ipswich (from Ipswich), and the Saxmundham (from Saxmundham), every afternoon at two, from the Ship, and several Chelmsford coaches go from the same Inn, one every Sunday afternoon at three, and every alternate morning at seven and eight, and afternoon at three; all go same route.
To LONDON, the Times (from Norwich), calls at the Queens' Head, every afternoon at four, & the Braintree & Halstead (from Halstead), calls at the same Inn, every Monday morning at half-past six, and other mornings (Sunday excepted) at half-past eight - the Independent Blue, calls at the King's Head, every afternoon at two, and the New Colchester (from Colchester), every afternoon at four - the Tally-ho! From the White Hart, every Sunday morning at ten, Monday morning at six, and every other morning at eight - the Star (from Yarmouth), calls at the Duke's Head and Ship, every afternoon at five - and the Old Maldon (from Maldon), calls at the Ship and Windmill alternately, every Sunday, Wednesday and Friday morning at eleven; all go same route.
To BRAINTREE & HALSTEAD, the Braintree (from London), calls at the Queen's Head, every alternate evening at half-past six, and every Monday evening at half-past seven.
To BURY ST. EDMUNDS, the Bury (from London), calls at the Ship, every afternoon (Sunday excepted), at two; goes through Braintree, Halstead, &c.
To COGGESHALL, the Coggeshall (from London), calls at the Black Boy, every evening (Sunday excepted) at six; goes through Witham and Kelvedon.
To COLCHESTER, the New Colchester (from London) calls at the King's Head, and the Defiance, calls at the Black Boy and Duke's Head, every evening at six - and the Wellington, calls at the Duke's Head and Ship, every afternoon at a quarter to one; all go through Witham and Kelvedon.
To HARWICH, the Harwich (from London), calls at the Ship, every day (Sunday excepted) at noon; goes through Witham and Kelvedon.
To IPSWICH, the Ipswich (from London), calls at the Ship, every afternoon at two - the Independent Blue, calls at the King's Head, every day at noon - and the Shannon, calls at the Black Boy, every morning at eleven; all go through Witham and Colchester.
To MALDON, the Old Maldon (from London), calls at the Ship & Windmill alternately, every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday afternoon at three - and a branch Coach, from the White Hart, every evening at half-past seven; both go through Great Baddow & Danbury.
To NORWICH, the Royal Mail (from London), calls at the Black Boy, every night at a quarter before twelve; goes through Witham, Colchester, Ipswich, Eye, Scole Inn and Long Stratton - the Phenomenon, calls at the same Inn, every other morning at half-past nine - the Norwich Day, calls at the ship, and the Times, calls at the Queens's Head, every morning at half-past nine; all three go through Braintree, Sudbury, Bury, Ixworth, Botesdale, Scole Inn and Long Stratton.
To SAXMUNDHAM, the Saxmundham (from London), calls at the Ship, every morning at eleven;; goes through Witham, Colchester, Ipswich, Woodbridge and Wickham Market.
To SCOLE INN & DISS, the Herald (from London), calls at the Black Boy, every morning at half-past eleven; goes through Braintree, Sudbury, Bury, Ixworth and Botesdale.
To SUDBURY, the Sudbury (from London) calls at the Black Boy, every afternoon (Sunday excepted) at four; goes through Braintree, Halstead, &c.
To YARMOUTH, the Star (from London), calls at the Duke's Head and Ship every morning at half past nine - and the Telegraph, calls at the Ship, every night at eleven, both go through Witham, Colchester, Ipswich, Woodbridge, Saxmundham, Yoxford, Wrangford, Wrantham and Lowestoft.
To LONDON, Coe and Cuthbert's Van, from the Half Moon, every Mon. & Fri. even. thro' Ingatestone, Brentwood, &c.
To London, Bull's Waggon, daily - Smith's Waggon, every Mon. Tues. and Fri. - Sykes and Co.'s Osborne & Co.'s, Gunn's, and Jarvis's Waggons, every Mon. Wed. & Fri. - Ruffell's Waggons, every Mon. & Fri. - Camphon's Waggon, every Mon. - Walter & Yeulett's and Cornelius's Waggons, every Tues. and Fri - John Potts's Waggon, every Tues. - Ablett's & Byford's Waggon, every Wed. & Fri. - and Farrow & Co.'s, Brown & Winter's, Nollard's, Finch's, Ager's, Wallis & Co.'s, Fake's, Ruggle's, and Lowe's Waggons, every Friday, all call at the King's Head - Deacon & Co.'s Waggon, calls at the Duke's Head, every Mon. Wed. & Fri. - and James Davey, from his house, every Monday & Thursday; all go thro' Ingatestone, Brentwood, &c.
To BEATFIELD, Camphon's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Wed.
To BILLERICAY, Livermore Isaacs' Cart, from the White Hart, every Tues.
To BRAINTREE, Cornelius's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Thurs. and Sun. - and Livermore Isaacs' Cart, from the White Hart, every Wed.
To BURY, Ruggles' Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Wed. & Sun. and Fake's Waggon, every Sunday.
To CAVENDISH, Byford's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Fri. & Sun.
To CHIPPENHILL and WITHAM, Finch's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Sunday.
To CHIPPING ONGAR, Livermore Isaacs' Cart, from the White Hart, every Saturday.
To CLARE, Jarvis and Co.'s Waggons, call at the King's Head, every Wednesday, Friday and Sunday.
To COGGESHALL, Ruffell's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Wed. & Sun. and Wallis & Co.'s every Sun.
To COLCHESTER and HARWICH, Osborne & Co.'s Waggons, call at the King's Head, every Sun. Wed. & Sat.
To DEBENHAM, Nollard's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Sun.
To EYE, Bull's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Sunday.
To GREAT WALTHAM, Smith's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Wednesday and Sunday.
To HADLEIGH, Walter and Heulett's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Thursday and Sunday.
To HALESWORTH, Smith's Waggon, calls at King's Head, every Thurs. & Sun.
To HALSTEAD, Gunn's Wag. calls at the King's Head, every Wed. Fri. & Sun.
To NORWICH, Deacon & Co.'s Waggon, calls at the Duke's Head and the King's Head, and Sykes & Co.'s Waggons, call at the King's Head, every Wed. Fri. & Sun. - and Farrow & Co.'s Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Sunday.
To STEBBING, Lowe's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Sunday.
To STOWMARKET and IPSWICH, Brown & Winter's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Sunday.
To SUDBURY, Ablitt's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Fri. & Sun.
To WITHAM, Ager's Waggon, calls at the King's Head, every Sunday.
To YARMOUTH, Deacon & Co.'s Waggon, calls at the Duke's Head, every Sunday, Wednesday and Friday.
CONVEYANCE BY WATER.
To MALDON, Lighters (of thirty tons burden), on the river Chelmer, daily.
Transcribed by CG
The Imperial Gazetteer of England & Wales...., by John Marius Wilson. circa 1866
BOREHAM, a village and parish in Chelmsford district, Essex. The village stands on the river Chelmer, near the Eastern Counties railway, 3 and ½ miles NE of Chelmsford; and it has a post-office under Chelmsford, and was once a market-town. The parish comprises 3,739 acres. Real property, £7,002. Pop., 989. Houses, 186. The property is divided among a few. Boreham House is the seat of Sir J.T. Tyrell, Bart. Newhall belonged to Waltham abbey; and passed to the Shardelows, the Butlers, the Boleyns, Henry VIII., the Ratcliffes, the Villierses, Cromwell, Monk, the Cavendishes, and Olmius Lord Waltham. A mansion on it was built by the Butlers in the time of Henry VII.; inhabited by the Princess Mary, the Duke of Buckingham, Cromwell, and Monk; and demolished, all except the great hall, by Lord Waltham. The hall is now a chapel, 96 feet by 50, retaining the arms of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth; and a convent is connected with it, first occupied by nuns who fled from Liege at the first French revolution, and used as a seminary for Roman Catholic ladies. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of Rochester. Value, £432. Patron, the Bishop of Rochester. The church has a square Norman tower; contains tombs of the Ratcliffes, Earls of Sussex; and is good. The churchyard contains a mausoleum of the Walthams, after the model of the Temple of the Winds. There are National schools, Butler's charity school with £156 a-year, and other charities with £13.
Transcribed by Noel Clark
KELLY'S DIRECTORY OF ESSEX 1933
BOREHAM is a parish on the road from Chelmsford to Colchester, contiguous to the navigable river Chelmer, about 3¾ miles north-east from the Chelmsford station and 33 miles from London, in the Chelmsford division of the county, Chelmsford hundred, rural district, petty sessional division and county court district, rural deanery of Chelmsford, archdeaconry of Southend and Chelmsford diocese. There is no public lighting in the parish; water is obtained from springs, which are connected to hand pumps erected in various parts of the village. The church of St. Andrew is a building of flint and stone in mixed styles, consisting of chancel, nave, aisles, south porch and a central embattled Norman tower with pinnacles, and containing a clock with Cambridge chimes and 8 bells: the clock was placed in the tower in 1884: the Sussex chapel, in which are monuments to the Radcliffes, Barons and Viscount Fitzwalter, Earls of Sussex, a title extinct on the death of Edward, 6th earl, in 1641, has been rebuilt: the nave was re-roofed in oak in 1909: on the north side of the church is a vault of the Tyrrell family, restored in 1895 by William Tufnell esq. of Hatfield Place: on the south wall a handsome Caen stone mural tablet has been erected, at a cost of £130, by the parishioners and Canon Hulton, in memory of the 22 parishioners who fell during the Great War; it was unveiled by Col. G. E. Holman, and dedicated in December, 1919: an ambulatory in Forest of Dean oak was erected in 1924 to the memory of Canon Hulton, given by Miss Hulton: there are 460 sittings: in the churchyard is a mausoleum in the Classic style belonging to the Waltham family and a cross of Sicilian marble eight feet in height, erected by the parishioners to the Ven. Gaspard le Marchant Carey M.A. vicar here 1874-85, hon. canon of St. Albans and archdeacon of Essex, who died March 17, 1885. The register dates from the year 1550. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £436, with 18 acres of glebe and residence, in the gift of the Bishop of Chelmsford, and held since 1932 by the Rev. Albert Stone, of King's College, London. In 1909 the churchyard was enlarged; the new portion being divided from the old churchyard by the highway. Here is a Congregational chapel. Two of the almshouses in the parish of Stock are appropriated to the poor of this parish. Butler's charity is an endowment of £140 yearly, for educational purposes, left in 1717 by Edward Butler, of Little Baddow; under a scheme dated October, 1909, the proceeds of the charity are now applied to providing scholarships and apprenticeships for deserving children attending the public elementary schools of Little Baddow and Boreham. New Hall, in the parish, to the north-west, a royal residence in the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII. was granted in the reign of Elizabeth to Sir Thomas Radcliffe K.G. 3rd Earl of Sussex, and afterwards passing into the possession of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, on the attainder of whose son it became the property of the Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell, and was exchanged by him for Hampton Court; at the restoration it was purchased by George Monk, Duke of Albermarle K.G.; it is now a Roman Catholic convent and school, with an attached chapel, dedicated to the Holy Sepulchre of Our Lord. The trustees of the late James Parker esq. are lords of the manor of East Beaulieu. The principal landowners are Fordson Estates Ltd., Messrs. William McMillan and John Macaulay and Sir Adam Beattie Ritchie. The soil is mixed; subsoil, gravel and clay. The chief crops are wheat, beans, barley, oats, fruit and turnips. The area is 3,801 acres of land and inland water; the population in 1931 was 1,078.
Post, M. O., T. & T. E. D. Office. Letters through Chelmsford
Carriers to Chelmsford---Moore passes through from Kelvedon, mon. thurs. & fri.; Pitcher, daily, from 'Lion & Lamb,' Chelmsford
There is a frequent service of motor omnibuses running daily from Chelmsford to Kelvedon & Colchester